1. 11:45 13th Aug 2014

    Notes: 171

    Reblogged from lalumacavevatrecorna

    proust2000:

    italian-landscapes:

    Eccidio di (Massacre of) Sant’Anna di Stazzema, Tuscany, Italy (Aug. 12 1944)

    Today is the 70th anniversary of the St. Anna di Stazzema massacre.

    The Allied advance from Southern to Northern Italy was blocked by the Nazis’ Gothic Line in the Italian front in 1944/1945, during the World War Two.

    The Line followed the Apennine mountains from the Thyrrhenian to the Adriatic Seas; some Italian partisan forces fought behind the German front and made trouble for the supplies to the frontline. The 16. SS-Panzergrenadier-Division “Reichsführer SS” was ordered to solve the partisan troubles. Not finding  any partisan (they seem to have already abandoned the area), the Nazis surrounded the little mountain village and the near hamlets and farms. All the area was full of refugees, that tried to escape the Allied bombings of the near cities. All the able-bodied men took shelter in the woods, to escape the deportation in German lagers or the slave-labour in Italy. Nazis and some Italian Fascist collaborators gathered kids, women and old men in several buildings and killed about 560 of them.

    The Italians were considered traitors by Nazis, because of they have abandoned them after their armistice with Allies on Sept. 8 1943.

    The commander of the SS Division, General Max Simon, was sentenced to death by a British court after the war for another slaughter, that took place in Marzabotto, some months later; the sentence was later changed to life imprisonment. Simon was pardoned in 1954 and released from prison. Simon died free in 1961.

    Most of the evidences of the slaughter were hidden after the war by some not-identified , to avoid involving Germany, now allied against USSR in the “Cold War” and they were rediscovered only in 1994.

    Other massacres went before and after the Sant’Anna one.

    Apart from the divisional commander Max Simon,no one was prosecuted for this massacre until July 2004, when a trial against ten former Waffen-SS officers and NCOs living in Germany was held before a military court in La Spezia, Italy. On 22 June 2005, the court found the accused guilty of participation in the killings and sentenced them in absentia to life imprisonment. Werner Bruss (b. 1920, former SS-Unterscharführer), Alfred Concina (b. 1919, former SS-Unterscharführer), Ludwig Goering (b. 1923, former SS-Rottenführer who confessed to killing twenty women),Karl Gropler (b. 1923, former SS-Unterscharführer), Georg Rauch (b. 1921, former SS-Untersturmführer), Horst Richter (b. 1921, former SS-Unterscharführer), Alfred Schoneberg (b. 1921, former SS-Unterscharführer), Heinrich Schendel (b. 1922, former SS-Unterscharführer), Gerhard Sommer, (b. 1921, former SS-Untersturmführer), and Ludwig Heinrich Sonntag (b. 1924, former SS-Unterscharführer). However, extradition requests from Italy were rejected by Germany.

    In 2012, German prosecutors shelved their investigation of 17 unnamed former SS soldiers (eight of whom were still alive) who were part of the unit involved in the massacre because of a lack of evidence.The statement said: “Belonging to a Waffen-SS unit that was deployed to Sant’Anna di Stazzema cannot replace the need to prove individual guilt. Rather, for every defendant it must be proven that he took part in the massacre, and in which form.”The mayor of the village, Michele Silicani (a survivor who was 10 when the raid occurred), called the verdict “a scandal” and said he would urge Italy’s justice minister to lobby Germany to reopen the case.German Deputy Foreign Minister Michael Georg Link commented that “while respecting the independence of the German justice system,” it was not possible “to ignore that such a decision causes deep dismay and renewed suffering to Italians, not just survivors and relatives of the victims.” (Source Wikipedia)

    Spike Lee’s “Miracle at St. Anna” (2008) is a fictional adaptation of the massacre

    It’s worth to remember some of the victims and their age (of course bloodthirsty partisans):

    • Anna Pardini, 20 days old
    • Maria Tucci, 3 months old
    • Maria Bonuccelli, 1 year old
    • Maria Cappiello, 1 year old
    • Ivana Federigi, 1 year old
    • Claudio Gamba, 1 year old
    • Maria Ghilardini, 1 year old
    • Norma Mancini, 1 year old
    • Mirta Federigi, 2 years old
    • Piero Lencioni, 2 years old

    Sometime I wonder what does the SS’s motto mean: “Meine Ehre heißt Treue" (My Honor is Loyalty) and to be honest with you I’m still trying to figure out the meaning of the word “Honor” after at least all the things that happened there.

    Google Maps

    Sono stato a Sant’Anna di Stazzema qualche anno fa. Leggere Wikipedia non basta, non rende l’idea, non può far capire. È un posto isolato, ci vogliono 40 minuti in auto per arrivarci, il posto ideale per gli sfollati ancorchè era stata definita zona bianca dallo stesso esercito tedesco, cioè assolutamente sicura.

    10 case in tutto e una chiesetta. C’è pure un piccolo baretto emporio, di quelli che ti fanno il caffè ma hanno anche la verdura e i fiammiferi, unico posto apero al pubblico. Poi c’è il mausoleo della foto, con le bandiere e le corone di fiori, fuori dal paesino, se non ci si mette a contare i nomi e vedere le date di nascita (quelle di morte non sono scritte, sono tutte uguali) non trasmette più di tante emozioni, come tutti i mausolei. Vedi le foto dei vari Presidenti della Repubblica che si sono alternati alle commemorazioni, ma non quelle di alcun Cancelliere tedesco.

    Poi c’è il museo, unico edificio nuovo, che ripercorre tutta la vicenda della guerra in Versilia e Garfagnana, fino al 12 agosto del 44, quando a Sant’Anna la guerra finì. Un’unica giovane impiegata che ti dice che è gratis, con quel tono di rassegnazione di chi vede, ancora una volta, due persone che non sanno.

    Alla fine ti viene proposto di vedere un documentario, una ricostruzione intrecciata con le testimonianze dei pochi bambini superstiti che oggi ancora vivono lì, una pagina della storia del nostro paese che tutti dovrebbero studiare.

    Ricordo che uscendo tornando verso l’emporio vidi una signora anziana fuori dalla porta. Su un panca di legno intenta a sgranare fave dai baccelli, aveva più di 70 anni di sicuro, era una di quei bambini. L’ho riconosciuta, l’avevo appena sentita raccontare nel documentario di come si salvò per il solo fatto che sua mamma e sua nonna le erano cadute addosso dopo la prima mitragliata, in una cucina 2 metri per 3 con altre 25 donne e bambini, e come i loro corpi la protessero dalla granata che esplose poco dopo “per essere sicuri”.

    La osservai da lontano, avrei voluto abbracciarla ma mi trattenni, era probabilmente uno dei pochi momenti in cui poteva concentrare il 5% della sua mente su altro, sulle fave e sulla bella giornata di agosto. Non volli disturbarla.

    Ricordo che rimasi lì qualche minuto, ad osservare il prato davanti alla chiesa oggi curato e pulito ma sfuocato. Sfuocato dalle lacrime che mi servivano a non focalizzare 560 cadaveri accatastati.

    Le stesse lacrime che ora cadono sulla tastiera.

     
  2. 12:52 11th Aug 2014

    Notes: 18250

    Reblogged from death-by-lulz

    (Source: humorstop)

     
  3. 01:00

    Notes: 3466

    Reblogged from i-dont-need-anyone-now

    youarenotdesi:

    stevemccurrystudios:

    Back to School

    “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”
    - Nelson Mandela


    Please visit our Wordpress blog:  http://www.stevemccurry.wordpress.com

    Happy School Days, followers! 

     
  4. 10:45 10th Aug 2014

    Notes: 1539

    Reblogged from miaofucker

    magictransistor:

    Wenceslaus Hollar. Mysterium Pansophicum, Questions of the Soul, Dreÿ Principien, Signatura Rerum, Weg zu Christo, New Rebirth, Wahre Gelassenheit, Goettliche Tranquility, Predestination, Main Title (top to bottom). 1600s.

     
  5. 21:41 8th Aug 2014

    Notes: 602

    Reblogged from biomedicalephemera

    biomedicalephemera:

Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease
In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.
Infectious diseases:
Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
Cause clinically evident disease.
Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.
Contagious diseases:
Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.
Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 
Highly infectious:
Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.
Highly contagious: 
Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
Can be spread through airborne droplets.
To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.
However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.
Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

    biomedicalephemera:

    Public and Military Health Posters for Contagious and Infectious Disease

    In everyday speech, and even in many news reports, the terms “contagious" and "infectious" are often used interchangeably. In epidemiology (the study of how diseases spread) and most other scientific fields, however, they have distinct definitions. All contagious diseases are infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.

    Infectious diseases:

    • Are caused by “infective agents” - that is, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions - which are non-self organisms.
    • Cause clinically evident disease.
    • Not caused by immune dysfunction, non-infected injury, or psychological conditions.
    • Not caused by bodily reactions to chemicals or poisons not secreted by infective agents.
    • Transmitted in many, many ways, but generally originate outside of the infected host. An exception is in immune-compromised patients who become infected by commensal organisms.

    Contagious diseases:

    • Are infectious diseases transmitted from person-to-person, with no special agent or vector required.
    • Can be spread via airborne droplets, other bodily secretions, or fomites (any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as clothing, money, doorknobs, or stethoscopes).
    • Are the cause of most epidemics (a notable exception is the Black Plague, which probably was caught through flea vectors).
    • Spread can be controlled by quarantine and isolation.

    Another context in which “infectious” and “contagious” are used is to describe something as highly infectious or highly contagious. 

    Highly infectious:

    • Symptomatic disease can be caused by a very low number of infectious agents being introduced into the body.
    • Some highly infectious agents (such as ebola), can be caused by a very low number of pathogens, but can only cause infection when introduced into the body in a specific manner - for example, ebola does not cause infection when inhaled, but a tiny droplet of infected bodily secretion landing on an open wound can cause disease.

    Highly contagious:

    • Generally refers to the ability of the pathogen to survive outside of the host, and the number of ways it can be transmitted.
    • Can be spread through airborne droplets.

    To use the ebola example, even though it can’t be caught through airborne droplets, it can be caught through fomites, dead bodies, sexual intercourse, and contact with almost any bodily fluids. Because it’s not airborne, however, it’s considered highly infectious but not highly contagious, at least by virologists.

    However, for practical use, because it is so infectious, and has many other modes of transmission, it’s often called “highly contagious” in the media.

    Posters from National Archive of Medical History’s Otis Archives

     
  6. 20:41 7th Aug 2014

    Notes: 49

    Reblogged from grofjardanhazy

    image: Download

    grofjardanhazy:

Pyongyang Sunan International Airport
Pyongyang, North Korea
Photo: Eric Lafforgue

    grofjardanhazy:

    Pyongyang Sunan International Airport

    Pyongyang, North Korea

    Photo: Eric Lafforgue

     
  7. 08:19

    Notes: 76

    Reblogged from intlwomenshealth

    image: Download

    halftheskymovement:

In the Indian state of Jharkhand, extreme poverty makes young, rural women especially vulnerable to human traffickers. Anti-poverty measures have not been very effective. For example, while the local government tried distributing bicycles to girls for them to travel to school, human traffickers target them on their routes. Even the women who have escaped slavery are still haunted and stalked by their traffickers. One woman, who had been kept as a slave by two married doctors and has since been rescued, is now enrolled in a state-run residential facility. Even though relatives of the doctors visited her parents to offer them “lots of money” to avoid prosecution, she has taken her case to court and is still fighting for justice. 
Learn more via Times of India.
Photo: Getty Images.

    halftheskymovement:

    In the Indian state of Jharkhand, extreme poverty makes young, rural women especially vulnerable to human traffickers. Anti-poverty measures have not been very effective. For example, while the local government tried distributing bicycles to girls for them to travel to school, human traffickers target them on their routes. Even the women who have escaped slavery are still haunted and stalked by their traffickers. 

    One woman, who had been kept as a slave by two married doctors and has since been rescued, is now enrolled in a state-run residential facility. Even though relatives of the doctors visited her parents to offer them “lots of money” to avoid prosecution, she has taken her case to court and is still fighting for justice. 

    Learn more via Times of India.

    Photo: Getty Images.

     
  8. 08:19

    Notes: 39

    Reblogged from secretofmonkeyisland

    image: Download

    (Source: johnnylurg)

     
  9. 08:17

    Notes: 9

    Reblogged from k-khathy

    image: Download

    (Source: swarmparade)

     
  10. 09:00 6th Aug 2014

    Notes: 236

    Reblogged from i-dont-need-anyone-now

    image: Download

    compoundchem:

Happy International Beer Day everyone! Here’s a reminder of the chemistry behind a pint.As always, more info & download here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-mE

    compoundchem:

    Happy International Beer Day everyone! Here’s a reminder of the chemistry behind a pint.

    As always, more info & download here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-mE