1. 07:40 20th Jul 2014

    Notes: 725

    Reblogged from biomedicalephemera

    biomedicalephemera:

    Our Three (Brain) Mothers

    Protecting our brain and central nervous system are the meninges, derived from the Greek term for “membrane”. You may have heard of meningitis - this is when the innermost layer of the meninges swells, often due to infection, and can cause nerve or brain damage, and sometimes death.

    There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In Latin, “mater” means “mother”. The term comes from the enveloping nature of these membranes, but we later learned how apt it was, because of how protective and essential the meningeal layers are.

    ——————————————————-

    • The dura mater is the outermost and toughest membrane. Its name means “tough mother”.

    The dura is most important for keeping cerebrospinal fluid where it belongs, and for allowing the safe transport of blood to and from the brain. This layer is also water-tight - if it weren’t, our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would leak out, and our central nervous system would have no cushion! Its leathery qualities mean that even when the skull is broken, more often than not, the dura (and the brain it encases) is not punctured.

    • The arachnoid mater is the middle membrane. Its name means "spider-like mother", because of its web-like nature.

    The arachnoid is attached directly to the deep side of the dura, and has small protrusions into the sinuses within the dura, which allows for CSF to return to the bloodstream and not become stagnant. It also has very fine, web-like projections downward, which attach to the pia mater. However, it doesn’t contact the pia mater in the same way as the dura: the CSF flows between the two meningeal layers, in the subarachnoid space. The major superficial blood vessels are on top of the arachnoid, and below the dura.

    • Pia mater is the innermost membrane, which follows the folds (sulci) of the brain and spinal cord most closely. Its name means “tender mother”.

    The pia is what makes sure the CSF stays between the meninges, and doesn’t just get absorbed into the brain or spinal cord. It also allows for new CSF from the ventricles to be shunted into the subarachnoid space, and provides pathways for blood vessels to nourish the brain. While the pia mater is very thin, it is water-tight, just like the dura mater. The pia is also the primary blood-brain barrier, making sure that no plasma proteins or organic molecules penetrate into the CSF. 

    Because of this barrier, medications which need to reach the brain or meninges must be administered directly into the CSF.

    Images:
    Anatomy: Practical and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1909.

     
  2. 07:27

    Notes: 30640

    Reblogged from memecure

    (Source: fairygem)

     
  3. 07:25

    Notes: 807

    Reblogged from blackmagicpunks

    image: Download

     
  4. 07:23

    Notes: 402

    Reblogged from i-dont-need-anyone-now

     
  5. 00:00 18th Jul 2014

    Notes: 8395

    Reblogged from arseniccupcakes

    
Illustration by Ren Wicks, 1964

    Illustration by Ren Wicks, 1964

    (Source: vintagegal)

     
  6. 23:58 17th Jul 2014

    Notes: 128300

    Reblogged from cattivacomelaglio

    image: Download

    stunningpicture:

I like the way you think, Coke.

    stunningpicture:

    I like the way you think, Coke.

     
  7. 23:57

    Notes: 45730

    Reblogged from babypudding

     
  8. 22:30

    Notes: 13524

    Reblogged from unoetrino

    (Source: xylark)

     
  9. 22:28

    Notes: 6309

    Reblogged from bidonica

    image: Download

    ilovecharts:

World’s Deadliest Animals
     
  10. 08:54 16th Jul 2014

    Notes: 53002

    Reblogged from i-dont-need-anyone-now

    image: Download

    dynastylnoire:

allblackerrthingus:

phoenixx23:

thepoeticrebel:

dontbeabrat:

prettylxxxve:

lolitalovesshoes:

This is not life…

Wow wow wow

oh but nigga we ignorant tho

._.

1958 THESE ARE SOME OF YOUR GRANDPARENTS!!!! 
"slavery was hundreds of years ago. get over it" 
shut THE fuck up. 56 years ago black children were zoo attractions.
the same thing is happening in india as of LAST YEAR. Native Jarwawa peoples are tracked down like creatures on a safari and are forced to dance for food. x 
fuck you. fuck yourself. fuck your “reverse racism”.

fuck everyone  thinks its okay and all shall get over such fucked up happenings from the past, this is just fucked upp.

Son, my mom was born in 57.  Like….

    dynastylnoire:

    allblackerrthingus:

    phoenixx23:

    thepoeticrebel:

    dontbeabrat:

    prettylxxxve:

    lolitalovesshoes:

    This is not life…

    Wow wow wow

    oh but nigga we ignorant tho

    ._.

    1958 THESE ARE SOME OF YOUR GRANDPARENTS!!!! 

    "slavery was hundreds of years ago. get over it" 

    shut THE fuck up. 56 years ago black children were zoo attractions.

    the same thing is happening in india as of LAST YEAR. Native Jarwawa peoples are tracked down like creatures on a safari and are forced to dance for food. x 

    fuck you. fuck yourself. fuck your “reverse racism”.

    fuck everyone  thinks its okay and all shall get over such fucked up happenings from the past, this is just fucked upp.

    Son, my mom was born in 57.  Like….

    (Source: gold-kushkloudz)